Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology have once again excelled themselves in putting together a fine special edition on CRE and MDROs. Around this time last year I posted an article on the ICHE special edition on the role of the environment, and this special edition is equally important. I strongly recommend that you read the special edition from cover to cover, but I’ve picked out a few of my personal highlights below:
- A thoughtful editorial by Drs Lautenbach and Perencevich sets the scene. They reflect on our ‘woeful unpreparedness’ to address both current and future MDROs.
- A number of articles provide updates on surveillance and prevalence. Brennan et al. report findings from a 6-month CRE point-prevalence survey based on voluntary reporting in the state of Michigan, finding a crude rate of 1.07 cases per 10,000 patient days. Interestingly, this rate was almost 3 cases per 10,000 patient days in long-term acute care facilities. Isolates were not collected and analyzed, so carbapenemase genes were not confirmed; the fact that close to 10% of isolates were susceptible to meropenem suggests that a good number of the CRE were not carbapenemase producers. Indeed, another state-level point-prevalence survey (Pfeiffer et al., from Oregon) found that only 3 of the 60 CRE isolates reported were carbapenemase producers. Another state-level survey of CRE (Johnson et al., from Michigan) identified regional clustering of CRE colonization of mechanically ventilated patients in the central region of the state.
- Analysis through the SHEA Research Network found that contact isolation policies for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods (MDR-GNR) are surprisingly variable. Worryingly, almost 20% of facilities surveyed did not isolate patients infected or colonized with MDR Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter, and 6% do not isolate patients with CRE. Policies for de-escalation of contact precautions were equally variable. Contact isolation policies seem to be even more lax in long-term care facilities based on data from Pfeiffer et al., reporting that only half of patients colonized with MDROs are placed on contact precautions.
- A number of studies evaluated risk factors for CRE. For example, Bhargava et al. identified high acute morbidity score, immunosuppression, presence of indwelling medical devices and prior antimicrobial exposures to be consistent risk factors for CRE in the various patient populations they evaluated.
- A survey of the kitchen in a Swiss hospital identified ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 92% of raw chicken and 6% of rectal samples from food handlers.
- The efficacy of chlorhexidine bathing for MDR-GNR has been questioned, so data from Lin et al. on this issue are particularly welcomed. In a study of 62 patients in a long-term acute care facility, daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing halved the chances of culturing CRE from the body sites analyzed. However, it’s worth noting that the measured CHG skin concentration (15-312 mg/L before the daily bath and 78-1250 mg/L after the daily bath) was much lower than the applied CHG concentration (10,000 mg/L). This potentially brings the subtly reduced susceptibility to CHG reported in MRSA into play.
- Several studies evaluated the potential for environmental contamination with MDR-GNR. Rosa et al. found that exposure to surfaces contaminated with MDR A. baumannii increased the risk of acquisition by almost 3-fold. Although the design of the study was fundamentally different, it is interesting to note that the increased risk from admission to a room previously occupied by a patient with MDR A. baumannii was also around 3-fold in a previous study. Havill et al. reported that the survival time for CRE (including K. pneumoniae) on dry surfaces is measured in weeks not days. Rock et al. carefully observed 220 unique interactions between healthcare workers (HCW) and patients with KPC or non-KPC producing K. pneumoniae, finding that HCW gloves or gowns became contaminated during 14% of the 220 interactions, and 26% of 43 environmental samples were positive. There was no significant difference between HCW or environmental contamination rates for KPC vs. non-KPC producing K. pneumoniae.
- There was not much on therapy for CRE – perhaps because there is little to say for pan-drug resistant CRE! An article discussing the challenges of managing CRE infections by Drekonja et al. through surveying the CDC funded Emerging Infections Network highlighted the common problems due to toxicity from using “last-line” antimicrobials colistin and tigecycline.
It seems that the prevalence of CRE is patchy in the USA at present, and that long-term care, and long-term acute facilities are an integral part of the story. Given the limited evidence base, interventions need to cover all bases: active surveillance, rapid and accurate diagnostics, environmental (and perhaps food) hygiene, contact isolation and perhaps antiseptic decolonization, all combined with facility-wide education and communication initiatives. The most effective – and cost-effective – interventions to prevent and control the spread of CRE and other MDR-GNR are controversial so to this end I am looking forward to the SHEA ‘From MRSA to CRE: Controversies in MDROs’ and joint HIS / IPS ‘What’s that coming over the hill: rising to the challenge of resistant Gram-negative rods’ Spring meetings next month!